Planck, Max

   physicist; revolutionized science with his quan-tum theory. Born to a legal scholar in Kiel, he took his doctorate in 1879 at Berlin,* where Gustav Kirchhoff animated his interest in radiation. After five years at Munich he was appointed full professor at Kiel. He succeeded Kirchhoff in 1889 and remained at Berlin until he retired in 1926.
   Planck focused his research on thermodynamics, especially the study of ra-diation from black (perfectly absorbing) bodies, and recorded those phenomena inexplicable by Newtonian physics. In 1900 he published his findings in "On the Theory of the Law of Energy Distribution in a Normal Spectrum," which proposed that subatomic energy exists in small bundles or quanta" and that instead of being a uniform commodity, these quanta vary in size based on the frequency of radiation of which they form a part. Key to understanding the internal structure of the atom, the theory questioned the distinction between energy and matter and drove the great advances in physics during the next half-century, including Albert Einstein's* theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics.
   Planck received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918, was elected a foreign member of England's Royal Society in 1926 (the society awarded him its Copley medal in 1929), and became president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society* (KWG) in 1930. His work behind him, he remained in Nazi Germany. Openly opposed to many Nazi policies, he appealed unavailingly to Hitler* to end Jewish per-secution. In 1938 he resigned from the KWG. After World War II his achievements were commemorated when the KWG was renamed the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science.
   REFERENCES:Heilbron, Dilemmas of an Upright Man; Hermann, New Physics; Ma-crakis, Surviving the Swastika.

A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. .

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  • Planck, Max — ▪ German physicist Introduction in full  Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck   born April 23, 1858, Kiel, Schleswig [Germany] died Oct. 4, 1947, Göttingen, W.Ger.  theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize for… …   Universalium

  • Planck, Max — ► (1858 1947) Físico alemán, cuyas teorías constituyen la base de la mecánica cuántica. Analizó termodinámicamente numerosos procesos irreversibles, particularmente electrodinámicos, cuya exposición detallada presentó en sus Lecciones… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Planck, Max —  (1858–1947) German physicist, awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918 …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • PLANCK, Max — (1858 1947)    German theoretical physicist who helped develop QUANTUM mechanics and, together with EINSTEIN, founded modern physics …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Planck,Max Karl Ernst Ludwig — Planck (plängk), Max Karl Ernst Ludwig. 1858 1947. German physicist. He won a 1918 Nobel Prize for discoveries in connection with quantum theory. * * * …   Universalium

  • Planck , Max Karl Ernst Ludwig — (1858–1947) German physicist Planck was born at Kiel in Germany, where his father was a professor of civil law at the university. He was educated at the universities of Berlin and Munich where he obtained his doctorate in 1880. He began his… …   Scientists

  • Planck, Max (Karl Ernst Ludwig) — born April 23, 1858, Kiel, Schleswig died Oct. 4, 1947, Göttingen, W.Ger. German physicist. He studied at the Universities of Munich and Kiel, then became professor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin (1889–1928). His work on the… …   Universalium

  • Planck, Max (Karl Ernst Ludwig) — (23 abr. 1858, Kiel, Schleswig, Alemania–4 oct. 1947, Gotinga, Alemania Occidental). Físico alemán. Estudió en las universidades de Munich y Kiel, llegando luego a ser profesor de física teórica en la Universidad de Berlín (1889–1928). Su trabajo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck — Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (* 23. April 1858 in Kiel; † 4. Oktober 1947 in Göttingen) war ein bedeutender deutscher Physiker und Nobelpreisträger. Er wird als Begründer der Quantenphysik betrachtet …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Max Planck — Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (* 23. April 1858 in Kiel; † 4. Oktober 1947 in Göttingen) war ein bedeutender deutscher Physiker auf dem Gebiet der Theoretischen Physik. Er gilt als Begründer der Quantenphysik. Für die Entdeckung des plancksche …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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